Railways, — Foreign Trade, —The Moral Poverty of India and Native Thoughts . The title of the book is Poverty and Un-British Rule in India, the present. Poverty and un-British rule in India by Naoroji, Dadabhai, , S. Sonnenschein edition. File, Description, Size, Format. Naoroji - Poverty and UnBritish Rule in lockfollolatu.cf, MB, Adobe PDF, Thumbnail View/Open.
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Total Production of India, z-Calcutta Statistical Committee,. Agricultural Tah1l!ls, z -Fallacy of its Statistics, 3-How Statistics should be Compiled, 4-Central. Poverty and UnBritish Rule in India (Dadabhai Naoroji, ) - Free ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online for free. The title of the book is ** Poverty and Un-British Rule IN India,"».«., the present system of government is destructive and despotic to the Indians and un-British.
He was married to Gulbai at the age of eleven.
He died in Bombay on 30 June , at the age of Today the Dadabhai Naoroji Road , a heritage road of Mumbai, is named after him. A prominent residential colony for central government servants in the south of Delhi is also named Naoroji Nagar. His granddaughters Perin and Khrushedben were also involved in the freedom struggle. In , Khurshedben was arrested along with other revolutionaries for attempting to hoist the Indian flag in a Government College in Ahmedabad.
Through his work with economics, Naoroji sought to prove that Britain was draining money out of India. Firstly, India is governed by a foreign government.
Secondly, India does not attract immigrants which bring labour and capital for economic growth. Thirdly, India pays for Britain's civil administrations and occupational army.
Fourthly, India bears the burden of empire building in and out of its borders. Fifthly, opening the country to free trade was actually a way to exploit India by offering highly paid jobs to foreign personnel. Lastly, the principal income-earners would download outside of India or leave with the money as they were mostly foreign personnel. Naoroji described this as vampirism, with money being a metaphor for blood, which humanised India and attempted to show Britain's actions as monstrous in an attempt to garner sympathy for the nationalist movement.
However the money from these services were being drained out of India; for instance the money being earned by the railways did not belong to India, which supported his assessment that India was giving too much to Britain. India was paying tribute for something that was not bringing profit to the country directly. Instead of paying off foreign investment which other countries did, India was paying for services rendered despite the operation of the railway being already profitable for Britain.
This type of drain was experienced in different ways as well, for instance, British workers earning wages that were not equal with the work that they have done in India, or trade that undervalued India's goods and overvalued outside goods.
Furthermore, the East India Company was downloading Indian goods with money drained from India to export to Britain, which was a way that the opening up of free trade allowed India to be exploited. Naoroji explained that Indians were either British subjects or British slaves, depending on how willing Britain was to give India the institutions that Britain already operated.
By giving these institutions to India it would allow India to govern itself and as a result the revenue would stay in India. By presenting himself as an Imperial citizen he was able to use rhetoric to show the benefit to Britain that an ease of financial burden on India would have.
He argued that by allowing the money earned in India to stay in India, tributes would be willingly and easily paid without fear of poverty; he argued that this could be done by giving equal employment opportunities to Indian professionals who consistently took jobs they were over-qualified for. Indian labour would be more likely to spend their income within India preventing one aspect of the drain. It was also important to examine British and Indian trade to prevent the end of budding industries due to unfair valuing of goods and services.
Over time, Naoroji became more extreme in his comments as he began to lose patience with Britain. This was shown in his comments which became increasingly aggressive.
Naoroji showed how the ideologies of Britain conflicted when asking them if they would allow French youth to occupy all the lucrative posts in England. He also brought up the way that Britain objected to the drain of wealth to the papacy during the 16th century. This commission reviewed financial burdens on India and in some cases came to the conclusion that those burdens were misplaced. In his writings, he considered that the foreign intervention into India was clearly not favourable for the country.
Further development was checked by the frequent invasions of India by, and the subsequent continuous rule of, foreigners of entirely different character and genius, who, not having any sympathy with the indigenous literature — on the contrary, having much fanatical antipathy to the religion of the Hindus — prevented its further growth. Priest-hood, first for power and afterwards from ignorance, completed the mischief, as has happened in all other countries.
This pressure on land acted as a catalyst to make the workers indulge in ruinous competition to acquire tenancies on uneconomic and exorbitant rates. The British had used India to transform it into a chief centre for exporting raw materials to feed the British industries and this in turn made India turn into the chief importer of finished products, thus increasing the sufferings of Indian industries.
The only way to save India from the economic breakdown, was to indulge in heavy industrialization to increase national savings and this would as a result reduce the Drain.
This had been the main argument of the moderate nationalists like Naoroji, Ranade, Gokhale, G. V Joshi and the like. They also believed that enhanced industrialization would enforce nationalism and unify the people, which in the long run would help in the formation of the nation state.
Many nationalists themselves took up the initiative of setting up industries themselves. Dadabhai Naoroji in became a partner in the commercial firm of the camas, which was the first Indian firm to have been set up in London.
And in he started his own concern under the name of Dadabhai Naoroji and co. Threat of foreign capital domination led Dadabhai Naoroji and G.
V Joshi press for nationalisation of all the industries which could not be managed by the Indian entrepreneurs and thus served as a good way of keeping foreign capital out.
Naoroji even highlights the issue of favourable balance of trade that happened when exports became greater than the imports and in this way he established a close connection between foreign trade, export excess and the Drain of wealth from India. The Drain mounted to 12 million pounds a year.
Dadabhai opined that the necessity for the Drain had been a natural economic result of foreign rule. Another reason had been the payment of the home charges which consisted of the payment of interests on the Indian public debt and the guaranteed railways, cost of military, civil and military charges paid to England, payment of pensions and allowances to European officials of Indian government.
The third main Reason for the drain had been the profits of foreign capital invested in trade or industry in India. The Drain impoverished the country and this had a harmful impact on income and employment.
Dadabhai said that the remedies to the Drain could be Indianisation of services and holding of the Civil Service Examination simultaneously in India and 3 Page Britain. He demanded for the curtailment of the Home Charges and reducing the burden on public debt to England, reducing the rate of interest, reducing railway debt and checking of import of private foreign capital. The very fact that Dadabhai had changed from a moderate to an extremist after being influenced by the Drain was pointed out by Bipan Chandra.
He wrote that Naoroji had issued warnings of dire consequences that would follow if the Drain was not checked. These warnings soon transformed themselves into direct political slogans and demands.
Also, demands for self-government were inspired by the radical atmosphere of the socialist congress.
He was unduly influenced by the work of James Mill in the sphere of capital and labour. He even said that the rampant inflation had been a result of shortage of produce in India due to all items being exported to Britain. Duke of Arghyll agreed with Dadabhai over the issue of the Drain caused due to the over employment of English officers in India. After getting elected as the president of the Indian national congress, he put forward the ideal of achieving self-government for India and not just indianization of services.