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Novela sin publicar. Jesse James y Billy the Kid. Llegaron los hippies. No todas las suecas son rubias. Para complacernos. Reina del mar. Sentirse, hallarse, ser. Verdad sobre Farrah Fawcett Majors, La.
Viajes misteriosos. Cidoncha, Ileana. Manuel Abreu Adorno. San Juan: Re- vista Asomante, Vol. Eruditos, Los. San Juan: Revista Asomante, Vol. Beso inoportuno, Un. Sensaciones de un cronista. Flores y sonrisas. Ojos negros, Los. Coleccion en la que mezcla literatura, viajes, semblanzas y cuentos. Tumba de los enamorados, La. Dedicado a Blanco Fombona. Literatura y sociedad en Puerto Rico. San Juan: Revista Asomante, , Vol.
En Abril, Mariano. Mariano Abril y Ostalo; su vida y su obra Contiene algunos cuentos y leyendas. El libro es el testimonio de un hombre nacido en Aguada a principios del siglo XX. Libro de islas. Este libro contiene algunos cuentos y relatos breves. Encuentro, El. No mires ahora Esperando que amanezca.
Gracias por venir.
No mires ahora. Contiene fotos de varias escritoras. Floresta de cuentos. Libro primero de lectura. New York: Ginn y Co.
Libro segundo de lectura. Lo que vio Luisito en el huerto. Seis deseos, Los.
A la sombra del pasaje. Amigo Giusseppe, El. Aves de paso. Brava y hermosa.
Brazalete piadoso. Pico a Pico. Catalogado por Lilian Quiles de la Luz como cuento modernista. Camino de la gloria. Caravana piadosa. De la vida que pasa.
De sal y pimienta. Dulce y sabrosa. En broma y en serio. En la palma de la mano. Fuerte y sencillo. Guardamos luto. Impresiones y desatinos. Infantina, La. Catalogado como cuento modernista por Lilian Quiles de la Luz.
Instantes de tortura. Mala sangre. Fragmentos de una novela corta. Mimada de todos, La. Mis antiguas camaradas. Mis primas me invitan. Noches exquisitas. Nos derretimos. San Juan: Rastros del genio, Los.
Reina del ajo, La. Risa, La. Rival, La. Sabor de sus lecturas, El. El periodismo en Puerto Rico. En Obras completas de Antonio S. En 21 conferencias. Yauco, Fue ensayista y educadora. En la dramaturgia compuso, junto a Emilio S.
Belaval, la comedia La romanticona. A tres malvados, tres castigos. How does irony question existing discourses on memory in the high-brow postdictatorial novel? And what role do generational shifts play in the use of irony? It is well known that the memory paradigm has had a strong presence in Argentina after the end of the military regime in In those years, the postdictatorial experience was systematically connected with the experience of the Shoah, a connection which has not always been evaluated very positively.
The huge amount of testimonies published in the s contributed to the creation and consolidation of social and communitarian bonds which had been lost in exile or destroyed by the violence of the dictatorship Sarlo According to Elsa Drucaroff in Los prisioneros de la torre.
In my view, it would be important to stress the continuity in the use of irony over different generations, to which the critical dimension is an essential ingredient. Indeed, as Philippe Hamon stated, one of the main characteristics of irony is to utter an evaluation, a critical revision of given truths and norms through its indirect, oblique discourse It is precisely the existence of a very strong narrative with clearly defined positions in the Argentinian memory discourse, which invites irony to manifest itself as a counterdiscourse, as a means to question established and unquestionable truths.
Irony, because of its axiological dimension, questions monolitic statements, without necessarily proposing an alternative discourse that aspires to be true. To my mind, this community-bonding function of irony is even more reinforced in the other three stages of the postdictatorial novel.
The second stage distinguished by Gamerro was initiated by the return to democracy, and is characterized by works produced by people directly involved in the conflict.
Significantly, the narrator, Diana Glass, is not the militant woman who becomes a torturer, but her friend, who never got actively involved in politics, and narrates the story of her militant friend from an uncomfortably innocent present.
The question that is raised here is the right to speak: who can use irony in relation to the atrocities of dictatorship? The polemic that was generated after the publication of this novel, was intrinsically related to this question.
Actually, some critics defended an ethical stance which implied that the use of irony should be restricted to the victims: why should Heker, who was never imprisoned herself, represent through situational irony and melodrama the difficulties in which prisoners might have found themselves during dictatorship?
The third stage distinguished by Gamerro is that of the literature produced by those who were not so much witnesses as bystanders, i. It concerns a series of writers who were too young in to be activists, but who, as teenagers, were not insensible to the circumstances either.
The whole novel is built on the highly ironical contrast between the succession of chapters, which alternate between describing the FIFA World Cup of , and the torture sessions.
Irony, in this case, is used to underscore the coexistence of violence and play, and the way in which the dictatorship unashamedly used the World Cup to polish up its image, while continuing its cruel practices right next door. Moreover, irony also relativizes the innocent position of the recruit: he seems to be only an observer, but, when a prisoner gives him the phone number of her lawyer, his lack of action is a way of being guilty.
The irony in this novel reflects on the banality of evil and questions the innocence of the recruit. The ironical structure of the novel underlines the impossibility to make a clear distinction between the observer and the perpetrator.
Again, this asks for a more complex actantial scheme of the dirty war. In the second part of the novel, the irony is even more acerbic when it targets the officialization of the national trauma of dictatorship. The marginal status of the protagonist, who ends up as a transsexual, is contrasted by the centrality of the victims in the national trauma, organised and subsidised by the government in place.
The Mexican Case The Argentinian officialization of national trauma was certainly preceded by many years of activism by civil associations whose demands for memory constituted a battle against oblivion. In Mexico, the situation is different.
In the six years of his government, there have been 60, victims. However, while in Argentina testimonies proliferated as early as the s, their exiguous presence 20 in Mexico is striking, and one of the consequences is the lack of solid communitarian and social bonds. Compared to the highly polarized, but at the same time very active and strong discursive communities in Argentina, in Mexico the victims seem to be far more isolated.
One reason might be that in the case of Argentina, the militants were part of a highbrow intellectual community, while the conflict in Mexico does not have such a strong an intellectual connotation and is mainly concerned with economic power.
If the Argentinian dirty war was clearly embedded in the polarizations of the cold war, the Mexican drug war is a product of late capitalism, in which the victims are far less organized since they are not connected by any ideological background.
In that sense, the Mexican conflict, which is intrinsically embedded in a context of late capitalism, and in which positions and values seem fully exchangeable, is a perfect breeding ground for cynicism.
Otra pregunta sin respuesta. Se escribe, se hacen novelas, se es del norte. Another striking difference is that, while corpses, the haunting specter of the disappeared, are rare in Argentinian postdictatorial narrative, the Mexican drug novel gives prominence to the spectacular and ubiquitous display of the abject corpse. This corpse —and violence in general— is often represented in a playful way, which might be explained by the huge influence of the Tarantino aesthetics in contemporary Mexican literature.
In consequence, television plays a leading role in many of these novels, as the main vehicle through which violence —and especially spectacular violence, i. It is the story about the excitement, the fascination, and even the addiction Fernanda feels when she is treated in a violent, derogatory way by Julio, and of how she in turn becomes an extremely violent person herself.
The complete lack of transition in this paragraph between the mutilated corpse and daily breakfast, and the comparison between the fried eggs and the eye sockets is striking.
In Fiesta en la madriguera , by Juan Pablo Villalobos born , the spectacle of violence is observed through the perspective of the child narrator, who lives with his father, an important drug lord, in a kind of fortified palace.
He is not supposed to see any violence —women are continuously cleaning, weapons are hidden behind closed doors, the lions make sure no body parts are left over— but as a real detective he discovers details that are indicative of the violence of his environment.
Tampoco parece que fuera obra de los franceses, que gustan tanto de cortar las cabezas. En la guillotina colocan una cesta justo debajo de la cabeza del rey. Luego los franceses dejan caer la navaja y la cabeza cortada del rey cae en la cesta. Por eso me caen bien los franceses, que son tan delicados.
But are these corpses and their representation in fiction merely a contribution to the daily spectacle of violence in Mexico, or could we consider them as ironic reflections on the spectacle of violence in which we, as readers, also participate with delight? Indeed, the novel alludes frequently to the violence of colonialism and modernity: as the narrator observes several times, the French cut off as many heads as the Mexicans, they only did it with more sophistication and left them in a basket instead of in a box of brandy.
Irony, in this novel, is used precisely to criticize the exotic spectacle of violence as it is present both in Mexican and international media, as a stereotype of Mexican culture dating back to the Aztecs. This novel considers tourism as the latest manifestation of imperialism, and tells the story of a number of Western tourists who go to a resort in Mexico in order to experience real fear and anxiety. Lo raro es que en lugares tranquilos hay gente que quiere sentir eso.
Lo que para nosotros es horrible para ellos es un lujo. El tercer mundo existe para salvar del aburrimiento a los europeos. Conclusions In summary, it is striking how in both Argentina and Mexico, irony and humour are increasingly introduced in literature on violence. However, in these two countries their function is very different. In Argentina we see a predominance of irony, which operates as a way of criticizing the coherent narrative on dictatorship produced primarily by testimonies.
In Mexico the memory discourse is only incipient; instead we observe that in this case violence is the key concept, a violence with a notoriously spectacular dimension. In Mexican narrative, we seem to find a predominance of cynicism, insisting on the interchangeability of positions in the war on drugs, and the absence of a fixed narrative scheme. The voices of the witnesses, still important players in the Argentinian memory discourse seem to be —until now— nearly absent in the Mexican literary scene.
This goes on to prove once more that Mexican memory is still not owned by the victims themselves. Dialectic of Enlightenment. New York: Seabury Press, Notes to Literature. Volume Two. New York: Columbia UP, Critical Models: Interventions and Catchwords. Adriaensen, Brigitte. Grinberg Pla. Libro de homenaje en honor de Patrick Collard. Perra Brava: Novela. F: Editorial Planeta Mexicana, Alphen, Ernst van.
Norman L. Parque EcoAlberto. Basile, Teresa and Abril Trigo. Ohio State U, Payne, eds. Accounting for Violence. Marketing Memory in Latin America. Durham and London: Duke University Press, Blechmar, Jordana and Natalia Fortuny. Los topos.
Buenos Aires: Mondadori, Calveiro, Pilar. Cohen, Diane. Coulson, Shea. Adorno and the Art of Laughter. Farred, Grant. Franco, Jean. Cruel Modernity. Durham, Duke UP, Freud, Sigmund. Der Witz und seine Beziehung zum Unbewussten. Galdo, Juan Carlos. Gamerro, Carlos. Hamon, Philippe. Heker, Liliana. El fin de la historia. Buenos Aires: Alfaguara, Herlinghaus, Hermann. New York: Bloomsbury, Herrera, Yuri.